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Glossary

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  • learning

    Definition: 

    Process by which an individual assimilates information, ideas and values and thus acquires knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences.

    Comments: 
    • learning occurs through personal reflection, reconstruction and social interaction;
    • it may take place in formal, non-formal or informal settings.
    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2008.
  • learning by doing

    Definition: 

    Learning acquired by repeated practice of a task, with or without prior instruction.

    or

    Learning acquired by transforming one’s mental assets through confrontation with reality, resulting in new knowledge and skills.

    Comments: 

    learning by doing is also referred to as experiential learning.

    Source: 
    Cedefop.
  • learning by using

    Definition: 

    Learning acquired by repeated use of tools or facilities, with or without prior instruction.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2008.
  • learning community

    Definition: 

    Community that promotes a culture of learning by developing effective local partnerships between all sectors of the community, and supports and motivates individuals and organisations to learn.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2004.
  • learning content

    Definition: 

    Topics and activities which make up what is learned by an individual or group of learners during a learning process.

    Source: 
    adapted from European Training Foundation, 1997.
  • learning facilitator

    Definition: 

    Anyone who promotes acquisition of knowledge and skills by establishing a favourable learning environment, including anyone exercising a teaching, training, supervision or guidance function. The facilitator helps the learner develop knowledge and skills by providing guidelines, feedback and advice throughout the learning process.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2004.
  • learning organisation

    Definition: 

    Organisation which promotes learning, and where individuals learn and develop through the work context, for the benefit of themselves, one another and the whole organisation, with such efforts being publicised and recognised.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2004.
  • learning outcomes / learning attainments

    Definition: 

    Set of knowledge, skills and/or competences an individual has acquired and/or is able to demonstrate after completion of a learning process, either formal, non-formal or informal.

    or

    Statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process, which are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2008; European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 2008.
  • learning region

    Definition: 

    Region in which stakeholders cooperate to meet local learning needs and share resources to devise joint solutions.

    Source: 
    based on Cedefop, 2004.
  • level of qualification

    Definition: 

    The term covers two aspects:

    Level of attainment in formal education and training, recognised in a qualification system or in a qualification framework.

    or

    Level of proficiency acquired through education and training, work experience or in non-formal/informal/ settings.

    Comments: 
    • level of qualification is often determined by what is expected in qualification systems or by level descriptors of qualifications frameworks;
    • it can also be determined by an occupational profile (for example, description of the learning outcomes required to perform the tasks attached to a job at a specific level of responsibility and autonomy).
    Source: 
    Cedefop.
  • lifelong learning

    Definition: 

    All learning activity undertaken throughout life, which results in improving knowledge, know-how, skills, competences and/or qualifications for personal, social and/or professional reasons.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2008.
  • lifewide learning

    Definition: 

    Learning, either formal, non-formal or informal, that takes place across the full range of life activities (personal, social or professional) and at any stage of life.

    Comments: 

    lifewide learning is a dimension of lifelong learning.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2008.
  • low-skilled person

    Definition: 

    Individual whose level of educational attainment is lower than a predetermined standard.

    Comments: 
    • standard level below which an individual is considered as low-skilled depends, for example, on general level of education in a society, or on level of qualifications within an occupation;
    • actual level of qualification of an individual includes non-formal learning outcomes acquired through continuing (re)training/upskilling, work experience, or personal development;
    • in the European Union, an individual is considered as low-skilled when educational attainment is below the upper secondary educational level defined in ISCED.
    Source: 
    Cedefop.