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  • permeability of education and training systems


    Capacity of education and training systems to enable learners to:

    • access and move among different pathways (programmes, levels) and systems;

    • validate learning outcomes acquired in another system or in non-formal/informal settings.

    • permeability of systems can be improved by:
      • modularising pathways and defining units of learning outcomes;
      • establishing qualification frameworks which create links between various qualifications, improving readability of qualifications within and between countries;
      • setting credit systems;
    • permeability is characterised by direction (vertical/horizontal), criteria for access (individual or collective), admission or exemption, level of formalisation (at institution or system levels).
  • post-compulsory education


    Education followed by an individual after compulsory education (the minimum legal standards and duration of schooling).

    based on European Training Foundation, 1997.
  • professional development


    Any action undertaken to improve professional performance.


    professional development:

    • encompasses specific skills and generic skills (team or time management, negotiation skills, conflict management, communication, etc.);
    • may take the form of self-learning, formal training, consultation, conferences, coaching or mentoring, communities of practice and technical assistance.
    Cedefop; Wikipedia, 2012.
  • programme of education or training


    Inventory of activities, content and/or methods implemented to achieve education or training objectives (acquiring knowledge, skills and/or competences), organised in a logical sequence over a specified period of time.


    the term programme of education of training refers to the implementation of learning activities whereas curriculum refers to the design, organisation and planning of these activities.

    Cedefop, 2008.