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Glossary

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  • underqualification

    Definition: 

    Situation where an individual has a lower qualification than the current job requires.

    Comments: 
    • underqualification may be assessed against the level of education or the degree of work experience;
    • underqualification can be temporary (such as employers hire underqualified staff for a high-level position until they find a more appropriate person) or have a more permanent character;
    • underqualification may refer to undereducation (a situation where an individual has a level of education inferior to that required for a job) or underskilling (a situation where an individual lacks the skills and competences necessary to perform a job to acceptable standards).
    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2010.
  • unit of learning outcomes (ECVET)

    Definition: 

    Component of a qualification, consisting of a coherent set of knowledge, skills and competences, that can be assessed and validated;

    or

    Set of knowledge, skills, and/or competences which constitute a coherent part of a qualification. A unit can be the smallest part of a qualification that can be assessed, transferred and, possibly, certified. It can be specific to a single qualification or common to several qualifications.

    Comments: 

    the characteristics of units (content, size, total number of units composing a qualification, etc.) are defined by the competent body responsible for the qualification at the appropriate level. The definition and description of units can vary according to the qualifications system and procedures of the competent body. However, the ECVET system proposes to provide for every unit:

    • its generic title;
    • the knowledge, skills and competences contained in it;
    • the criteria for assessment of the corresponding learning outcomes.
    Source: 
    European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 2009a; Cedefop, 2008.
  • upskilling

    Definition: 

    Short-term targeted training typically provided following initial education or training, and aimed at supplementing, improving or updating knowledge, skills and/or competences acquired during previous training.

    Comments: 

    Cedefop, 2004.

    Source: 
    Cedefop, 2004.