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  • validation of learning outcomes


    Confirmation by a competent body that learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and/or competences) acquired by an individual in a formal, non-formal or informal setting have been assessed against predefined criteria and are compliant with the requirements of a validation standard. Validation typically leads to certification.


    Process of confirmation by an authorised body that an individual has acquired learning outcomes measured against a relevant standard. Validation consists of four distinct phases:

    • identification through dialogue of particular experiences of an individual;

    • documentation to make visible the individual's experiences;

    • formal assessment of these experiences; and

    • certification of the results of the assessment which may lead to a partial or full qualification.

    Cedefop, 2008; Council of the European Union, 2012.
  • valuing learning


    Process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning, to raise awareness of its intrinsic worth and to reward learning.

    Cedefop, 2001 in European Commission, 2001.
  • vocational education and training (VET)


    Education and training which aims to equip people with knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences required in particular occupations or more broadly on the labour market.

    adapted from European Training Foundation, 1997.